In this seminar , we are giving some basic concepts about smart cards. An artificial passenger (AP) is a device that would be used in a motor vehicle to make sure that the driver stays awake. IBM has developed a prototype that holds a conversation with a driver, telling jokes and asking questions intended to determine whether the driver can respond alertly enough. Assuming the IBM approach, an artificial passenger would use a microphone for the driver and a speech generator and the vehicle’s audio speakers to converse with the driver. The conversation would be based on a personalized profile of the driver. A camera could be used to evaluate the driver’s “facial state” and a voice analyzer to evaluate whether the driver was becoming drowsy. If a driver seemed to display too much fatigue, the artificial passenger might be programmed to open all the windows, sound a buzzer, increase background music volume, or even spray the driver with ice water. One of the ways to address driver safety concerns is to develop an efficient system that relies on voice instead of hands to control Telematics devices. It has been shown in various experiments that well designed voice control interfaces can reduce a driver’s distraction compared with manual control situations. One of the ways to reduce a driver’s cognitive workload is to allow the driver to speak naturally when interacting with a car system (e.g.when playing voice games, issuing commands via voice). It is difficult for a driver to remember a syntax, such as “What is the distance to JFK?”"Or how far is JFK?” or “How long to drive to JFK?” etc.). This fact led to the development of Conversational Interactivity for Telematics (CIT) speech systems at IBM Research.
CIT speech systems can significantly improve a driver-vehicle relationship and contribute to driving safety. But the development of full fledged Natural Language Understanding (NLU) for CIT is a difficult problem that typically requires significant computer resources that are usually not available in local computer processors that car manufacturer provide for their cars.
To address this, NLU components should be located on a server that is accessed by cars remotely or NLU should be downsized to run on local computer devices (that are typically based on embedded chips).Some car manufacturers see advantages in using upgraded NLU and speech processing on the client in the car, since remote connections to servers are not available everywhere, can have delays, and are no trobust. Our department is developing a “quasi-NLU”component – a “reduced” variant of NLU that can be run in CPU systems with relatively limited resources.
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