Unified Theory of Electrification in Natural Processes

ABSTRACT

Electrification in natural processes is explained by photochemical reactions initiated by electromagnetic (EM) radiation induced in nanoparticles (NPs) by quantum electrodynamics (QED). The NPs ubiquitous to natural processes produce EM radiation depending on the thermal kT of atoms that at ambient temperature is emitted in the far infrared (FIR). However, EM radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) levels is required to initiate photochemical reactions, and therefore a mechanism is required to increase the frequency from the FIR to VUV levels – the mechanism called QED induced EM radiation. How the NPs form depends on the specific natural process, but all processes are unified by the VUV radiation induced in NPs by QED. For example, static electricity comprising positive and negative charges is produced from VUV induced in NPs that form in the rubbing of dissimilar solids, atmospheric electricity is produced by hydronium and hydroxyl ions from VUV induced in ice NPs as water vapor freezes at high altitudes, and flow electricity is produced by cations and electrons from VUV induced in NPs that form as clusters in turbulence. Prior applications of QED induced EM radiation were based on the EM confinement of FIR radiation in nanovoids (NVs) – bubbles in liquids and gaps in solids. But difficulties with NVs in this regard led to the conclusion that NPs whether liquid or solid are the most likely EM confinement of FIR radiation in natural processes. Compared to NVs, NPs assure EM confinement of FIR radiation to allow frequency up-conversion to VUV levels. Electrification first occurs at the instant the NPs form as the thermal kT energy of the atoms forming the NP is released in a burst of VUV radiation. Steady VUV is then produced as the NP recovers the thermal kT energy lost in the burst from blackbody (BB) radiation in the ambient surroundings. Either way, FIR radiation from the atoms within the NP is suppressed by QED because the FIR frequency is lower than the EM confinement frequency of NPs. To conserve EM energy, QED requires the kT energy loss corresponding to the suppressed IR radiation to be gained at the EM confinement frequency of the NP – typically in the VUV. In this way, the NPs produce the VUV radiation that by photochemical reaction with chemical species to produce charge in natural processes.

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Rover technology

ABSTRACT

Location-aware computing involves the automatic tailoring of information and services based on the current location of the user. We have designed and implemented Rover, a system that enables location-based services, as well as the traditional time-aware, user-aware and device-aware services. To achieve system scalability to very large client sets, Rover servers are implemented in an “action-based” concurrent software architecture that enables fine-grained application-specific scheduling of tasks. We have demonstrated feasibility through implementations for both outdoor and indoor environments on multiple platforms. The intriguing aspect of this scenario is the automatic tailoring of information and services based on the current location of the user. We refer to this paradigm as location-aware computing.

The different technology components needed to realize location-aware computing are present today, powered by the increasing capabilities of mobile personal computing devices and the increasing deployment of wireless connectivity (IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs [7], Bluetooth [1], Infra-red [2], Cellular services, etc.). Location-aware, in addition to the more traditional notions of time-aware, user-aware, and device-aware. Rover has a location service that can track the location of every user, either by automated location determination technology (for example, using signal strength or time difference) or by the user manually entering current location (for example, by clicking on a map).

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Visions of 4G

ABSTRACT

As the virtual centre of excellence in mobile and personal communications (Mobile VCE) moves into its second core research programme it has been decided to set up a fourth generation (4G) visions group aimed at harmonising the research work across the work areas and amongst the numerous researchers working on the programme. This paper outlines the initial work of the group and provides a start to what will become an evolving vision of 4G. A short history of previous generations of mobile communications systems and a discussion of the limitations of third generation (3G) systems are followed by a vision of 4G for 2010 based on five elements: fully converged services, ubiquitous mobile access, diverse user devices, autonomous networks and software dependency. This vision is developed in more detail from a technology viewpoint into the key areas of networks and services, software systems and wireless access.

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DNSSEC: A Protocol towards securing the Internet Infrastructure

ABSTRACT

Unlike spam, worms, viruses, and phishing—all of which confront end users directly—infrastructure attacks occur outside their normal frame of reference and control. But attacks on the Domain Name System (DNS), an engine of the Internet infrastructure, appear to be increasing in length and severity, affecting DNS information associated with financial services institutions, Internet service providers, and major corporations in the travel, health, technology, and media/ entertainment sectors. Such attacks can result in, say, dropped or intercepted email messages or users unknowingly redirected to fraudulent sites where they inadvertently hand over personal information.
The ultimate casualty in a serious infrastructure attack is public trust. The Internet technical community has responded to threats to the DNS infrastructure by developing the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) protocol standard. DNSSEC-enabled systems run primarily in only a few early adoption and experimental zones.
DNSSEC introduces security at the infrastructure level through a hierarchy of cryptographic signatures attached to DNS records. In the context of DNSSEC, users are assured that the source of the data is verifiable as the stated source, and the mapping of a name to an IP address is accurate. DNSSEC – capable name servers also provide denial of- existence; that is, they tell a user that a name does not exist.

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Model checking for Securing E-commerce transaction

ABSTRACT

The rapid growth of electronic commerce (e-commerce) has necessitated the development of e-commerce protocols. These protocols ensure the confidentiality and integrity of information exchanged. In addition, researchers have identified other desirable properties, such as, money atomicity, goods atomicity and validated receipt that must be satisfied by e-commerce protocols. This seminar shows how model checking can be used to obtain an assurance about the existence of these properties in an e-commerce protocol. It is essential that these desirable properties be satisfied, even in the presence of site or communication failure. Using the model checker we evaluate which failures cause the violation of one or more of the properties. The results of the analysis are then used to propose a mechanism that handles the failures to make the protocol failure resilient.

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Security Challenge and Defense in VoIP Infrastructures

ABSTRACT

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) has become a popular alternative to traditional public-switched telephone network (PSTN) networks that provides advantages of low cost and flexible advanced “digital” features. The flexibility of the VoIP system and the convergence of voice and data networks brings with it additional security risks. These are in addition to the common security concerns faced by the underlying IP data network facilities that a VoIP system relies on. The result being that the VoIP network further complicates the security assurance mission faced by enterprises employing this technology. It is time to document various security issues that a VoIP infrastructure may face and analyze the challenges and solutions that may guide future research and development efforts. In this paper, we examine and investigate the concerns and requirements of VoIP security. After a thorough review of security issues and defense mechanisms, we focus on attacks and countermeasures unique to VoIP systems that are essential for current and future VoIP implantations. Then, we analyze two popular industry best practices for securing VoIP networks and conclude this paper with further discussion on future research directions. This paper aims to direct future research efforts and to offer helpful guidelines for practitioners.

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Adding Intelligence to Internet

ABSTRACT


Two scaling problems face the Internet today. First, it will be years before terrestrial networks are able to provide adequate bandwidth uniformly around the world, given the explosive growth in Internet bandwidth demand and the amount of the world that is still unwired. Second, the traffic distribution is not uniform worldwide: Clients in all countries of the world access content that today is chiefly produced in a few regions of the world (e.g., North America). A new generation of Internet access built around geosynchronous satellites can provide immediate relief. The satellite system can improve service to bandwidth-starved regions of the globe where terrestrial networks are insufficient and supplement terrestrial networks elsewhere. This new generation of satellite system manages a set of satellite links using intelligent controls at the link endpoints. The intelligence uses feedback obtained from monitoring end-user behavior to adapt the use of resources. Mechanisms controlled include caching, dynamic construction of push channels, use of multicast, and scheduling of satellite bandwidth. This paper discusses the key issues of using intelligence to control satellite links, and then presents as a case study the architecture of a specific system: the Internet Delivery System, which uses INTELSAT’s satellite fleet to create Internet connections that act as wormholes between points on the globe.



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