AUDIO SPOTLIGHTING

ABSTRACT


Audio spot lighting is a very recent technology that creates focused beams of sound similar to light beams coming out of a flashlight. By ‘shining’ sound to one location, specific listeners can be targeted with sound without others nearby hearing it. It uses a combination of non-linear acoustics and some fancy mathematics. But it is real and is fine to knock the socks of any conventional loud speaker. This acoustic device comprises a speaker that fires inaudible ultrasound pulses with very small wavelength which act in a manner very similar to that of a narrow column. The ultra sound beam acts as an airborne speaker and as the beam moves through the air gradual distortion takes place in a predictable way due to the property of non-linearity of air. This gives rise to audible components that can be accurately predicted and precisely controlled. Joseph Pompei’s Holosonic Research Labs invented the Audio Spotlight that is made of a sound processor, an amplifier and the transducer. The American Technology Corporation developed the Hyper Sonic Sound-based Directed Audio Sound System. Both use ultrasound based solutions to beam sound into a focused beam. Audio spotlight can be either directed at a particular listener or to a point where it is reflected.

The targeted or directed audio technology is going to a huge commercial market in entertainment and consumer electronics and technology developers are scrambling to tap in to the market. Being the most recent and dramatic change in the way we perceive sound since the invention of coil loud speaker, audio spot light technology can do many miracles in various fields like Private messaging system, Home theatre audio system, Navy and military applications, museum displays, ventriloquist systems etc. Thus audio spotlighting helps us to control where sound comes from and where it goes!



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Optical computing

ABSTRACT


Optical computing means performing computations, operations, storage and transmission of data using light. Instead of silicon chips optical computer uses organic polymers like phthalocyanine and polydiacetylene.Optical technology promises massive upgrades in the efficiency and speed of computers, as well as significant shrinkage in their size and cost. An optical desktop computer is capable of processing data up to 1,00,000 times faster than current models.



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NavBelt and GuideCane

ABSTRACT


Recent evolutionary achievements in robotics and bioengineering have given scientists and engineers’ great opportunities and challenges to serve humanity. With the development of radar and ultrasonic technologies over the past four decades, when combined with the robotic technology and bioengineering, gave rise to new series of devices, known as “electronic travel aids (ETAs). It operates similar to a radar system, sends a laser or an ultrasonic beam, which after striking the object reflects back and is detected by the sensors, and so the corresponding distance from the object is calculated. In particular, these devices are used to help people organ failure and people with disabilities, such as visual impairment, deafness etc. This seminar is about an instrument, which is the outcome of robotics and bioengineering, and it is called “NavBelt and the GuideCane”. It is a robotics-based obstacle-avoidance system for the blind and visually impaired.
NavBelt is worn by the user like a belt and is equipped with an array of ultrasonic sensors. It provides acoustic signals via a set of stereo earphones that guide the user around obstacles or “displays” a virtual acoustic panoramic image of the traveller’s surroundings. One limitation of the NavBelt is that it is exceedingly difficult for the user to comprehend the guidance signals in time to allow fast walking.
A newer device, called GuideCane, effectively overcomes the above problem faced by the use of NavBelt. The GuideCane uses the same mobile robotics technology as the NavBelt but is a wheeled device pushed ahead of the user via an attached cane. When the GuideCane detects an obstacle, it steers around it. The user immediately feels this steering action and can follow the GuideCane’s new path easily without any conscious effort.



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Multisensor fusion and integration

ABSTRACT


Multisensor fusion and integration is a rapidly evolving research area. Multisensor fusion and integration refers to the combination of sensory data from multiple sensors to provide more accurate and reliable information.

The potential advantage of multisensor fusion and integration are redundancy, complementarity, timeliness and cost of the information.

Application of multisensor fusion and integration are also in the area of robotics, biomedical system, equipment monitoring, remote sensingand transportation system.



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MOCT

ABSTRACT


An accurate current transducer is a key component of any power system instrumentation. To measure currents, power stations and substations conventionally employ inductive type current transformers. With short circuit capabilities of power system getting larger and the voltage level going higher the conventional current transducers becomes more bulky and costly.

It appears that newly emerged MOCT technology provides a solution for many of the problems by the conventional current transformers. MOCT measures the rotation angle of the plane polarized lights caused by the magnetic field and convert it into a signal of few volts proportional to the magnetic field.

Main advantage of an MOCT is that there is no need to break the conductor to enclose the optical path in the current carrying circuit and there is no electromagnetic interference.



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Landmine detection using impulse ground penetrating radar

ABSTRACT


Landmines are affecting the lives and livelihood of millions of people around the world. The video impulse ground penetrating radar system for detection for small and shallow buried objects has been developed. The hardware combines commercially available components with components specially developed or modified for being used in the system. The GPR system has been desired to measure accurately electromagnetic field backscattered from subsurface targets in order to allow identification of detected targets through the solution of the inverse scattering problem. The GPR has been tested in different environmental conditions and has proved its ability to detect small and shallow buried targets.



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Image Authentication Techniques

ABSTRACT


Automatic video surveillance (AVS) systems are used for continuous and effective monitoring of dangerous and remote sites. Video data acquired by the automatic video surveillance system can be recorded and presented as a proof in front of court law. But digital video data lacks legal validity due to the ease to manipulate them without leaving any trace of modification. Image authentication is the process of giving a legal validity to the video data. By authentication technique content tampering can be detected and we can indicate the true origin of the data. There are two types of authentication schemes, which are

1. Cryptographic data authentication.

2. Watermarking-based authentication.

In this presentation an attempt is made to present the basic features of the image authentication techniques.



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