Bluejacking

ABSTRACT

Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field (i.e. for bluedating or bluechat) to another Bluetooth enabled device via the OBEX protocol. Bluetooth has a very limited range; usually around 10 meters on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to 100 meters with powerful transmitters.

Bluejacking allows phone users to send business cards anonymously using Bluetooth wireless technology. Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. Bluejackers often look for the receiving phone to ping or the user to react. In order to carry out a bluejacking, the sending and receiving devices must be within 10 meters of one another. Phone owners who receive bluejack messages should refuse to add the contacts to their address book. Devices that are set in non-discoverable mode are not susceptible to bluejacking.

Mobile phones have been adopted as an everyday technology, and they are ubiquitous in social situations as users carry them around as they move through different physical locations throughout the day. As a communicative device, the mobile phone has been gradually taken up in ways that move beyond merely providing a channel for mediated conversation. One such appropriation is bluejacking, the practice of sending short, unsolicited messages via vCard functionality to other Bluetooth-enabled phones. To choose the recipients of bluejacks, senders complete a scan using their mobile phones to search for the available Bluetooth-enabled devices in the immediate area. A bluejacker picks one of the available devices, composes a message within a body of the phone’s contact interface, sends the message to the recipient, and remains in the vicinity to observe any reactions expressed by the recipient.

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Co-operative Linux

ABSTRACT

This seminar describes Cooperative Linux, a port of the Linux kernel that allows it to run as an unprivileged lightweight virtual machine in kernel mode, on top of another OS kernel. It allows Linux to run under any operating system that supports loading drivers, such as Windows or Linux, after minimal porting efforts. The paper includes the present and future implementation details, its applications, and its comparison with other Linux virtualization methods. Among the technical details, it also presents the CPU-complete context switch code, hardware interrupt forwarding, the interface between the host OS and Linux, and the management of the VM‘s pseudo physical RAM.

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Zone Based Ant Colony Routing In MANET

ABSTRACT

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems like routing in computer networks. The idea of this optimization is based on the food accumulation methodology of the ant community. Position based routing algorithms (POSANT) had some significant loopholes to find route like it never guarantees the route would be the shortest one, in cases while it is able to find it. The routing algorithms which are based on ant colony optimization find routing paths that are close in length to the shortest paths. The drawback of these algorithms is the large number of control messages that needs to be sent or the long delay before the routes are established from a source to a destination.This paper presents a new routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc network by combining the concept of Ant Colony approach and Zone based routing approach using clustering to get shortest path with small number of control messages to minimize the overhead. Also this shows that zone based ant colony routing algorithm using cluster is more efficient than POSANT routing algorithm by comparative Overhead study of POSANT and Zone based Ant using clustering concept with respect to varying Node Number, Zone Size and Mobility.

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Audio CAPTCHA: Existing solutions assessment and a new implementation for VoIP telephony

ABSTRACT

SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is a potential source of future annoyance in Voice over IP (VoIP) systems. A typical way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (i.e., bot), which generates calls and produces unsolicited audio messages. A known way to protect against SPAM is a Reverse Turing Test, called CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computer and Humans Apart). In this paper, we evaluate existing audio CAPTCHA, as this type of format is more suitable for VoIP systems, to help them fight bots. To do so, we first suggest specific attributes-requirements that an audio CAPTCHA should meet in order to be effective. Then, we evaluate this set of popular audio CAPTCHA, and demonstrate that there is no existing implementation suit-able enough for VoIP environments. Next, we develop and implement a new audio CAPTCHA, which is suitable for SIP-based VoIP telephony. Finally, the new CAPTCHA is tested against users and bots and demonstrated to be efficient.

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OpenSocial

ABSTRACT

OpenSocial is a set of APIs for building social applications that run on the web. OpenSocial’s goal is to make more apps available to more users, by providing a common API that can be used in many different contexts. Developers can create applications, using standard JavaScript and HTML, that run on social websites that have implemented the OpenSocial APIs. These websites, known as OpenSocial containers, allow developers to access their social information; in return they receive a large suite of applications for their users.
The OpenSocial APIs expose methods for accessing information about people, their friends, and their data, within the context of a container. This means that when running an application on Orkut, you’ll be interacting with your Orkut friends, while running the same application on MySpace lets you interact with your MySpace friends.

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Java Ring

ABSTRACT

A Java Ring is a finger ring that contains a small microprocessor with built-in capabilities for the user, a sort of smart card that is wearable on a finger. Sun Microsystems’s Java Ring was introduced at their Java One Conference in 1998 and, instead of a gemstone, contained an inexpensive microprocessor in a stainless steel iButton running a Java virtual machine and preloaded with applets (little application programs). The rings were built by Dallas Semiconductor. Workstations at the conference had “ring readers” installed on them that downloaded information about the user from the conference registration system.
This information was then used to enable a number of personalized services. For example, a robotic machine made coffee according to user preferences, which it downloaded when they snapped the ring into another “ring reader.” The Java Ring is an extremely secure Java-powered electronic token with a continuously running, unalterable real-time clock and rugged packaging, suitable for many applications. The jewel of the Java Ring is the Java iButton — a one million transistor, single chip trusted microcomputer with a powerful Java Virtual Machine (JVM) housed in a rugged and secure stainless-steel case.

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Self Healing Robots

ABSTRACT


When people or animals get hurt, they can usually compensate for minor injuries and keep limping along, but for robots, even slight damage can make them stumble and fall. Now a robot scarcely larger than a human hand has demonstrated a novel ability: It can recover from damage — an innovation that could make robots more independent.

The new robot, which looks like a splay-legged, four-footed starfish, deduces the shape of its own body by performing a series of playful movements, swiveling its four limbs. By using sensors to record resulting changes in the angle of its body, it gradually generates a computerized image of itself. The robot then uses this to plan out how to walk forward.

The researchers hope similar robots will someday respond not only to damage to their own bodies but also to changes in the surrounding environment. Such responsiveness could lend autonomy to robotic explorers on other planets like Mars — a helpful feature, since such robots can’t always be in contact with human controllers on earth. Aside from practical value, the robot’s abilities suggest a similarity to human thinking as the robot tries out various actions to figure out the shape of its world.



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Bio Inspired Computing

ABSTRACT


Biologically inspired (often hyphenated as biologically-inspired) computing (also bio-inspired computing) is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence. It is often closely related to the field of artificial intelligence, as many of its pursuits can be linked to machine learning. It relies heavily on the fields of biology, computer science and mathematics. Briefly put, it is the use of computers to model nature, and simultaneously the study of nature to improve the usage of computers. Biologically inspired computing is a major subset of natural computation.
Some areas of study encompassed under the canon of biologically inspired computing, and their biological counterparts:
• genetic algorithms ↔ evolution
• emergent systems ↔ ants, termites, bees, wasps
• artificial immune systems ↔ immune system
The way in which bio-inspired computing differs from traditional artificial intelligence (AI) is in how it takes a more evolutionary approach to learning, as opposed to the what could be described as ‘creationist’ methods used in traditional AI. In traditional AI, intelligence is often programmed from above: the programmer is the creator, and makes something and imbues it with its intelligence. Bio-inspired computing, on the other hand, takes a more bottom-up, decentralised approach; bio-inspired techniques often involve the method of specifying a set of simple rules, a set of simple organisms which adhere to those rules, and a method of iteratively applying those rules. After several generations of rule application it is usually the case that some forms of complex behaviour arise. Complexity gets built upon complexity until the end result is something markedly complex, and quite often completely counterintuitive from what the original rules would be expected to produce.



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The Artificial Brain

ABSTRACT


We have always been interested in the notion of consciousness fact, which is, for us, the fact that an individual endowed with a brain can think of something related to his position in the world right here right now. It is not about the continuity, or the performance, nor the profoundness of the thought, but it is about thinking of something in a knowable manner and which can be specified from a linguistic or mathematical angle, without it being an automatic and predefined response to a given situation.
By analogy to the notion lengthily investigated by philosophers, psychologists, neurobiologists, we will pose the question of artificial consciousness: how can one transpose the fact of “thinking of something” into the computable field, so that an artificial system, founded on computer processes, would be able to generate consciousness facts, in a viewable manner. The system will have intentions, emotions and ideas about things and events related to it-self. The system would have to have a body that it could direct and which would constrain the system. It would also have to have a history, and intentions to act and, most of all, to think. It would have to have knowledge, notably language knowledge. It would have to have emotions, intentions and finally a certain consciousness about itself.
We can name this system, by sheer semantic analogy, an artificial brain. However we will see that its architecture is quite different from living brains. The concern is transposing the effects, the movements; certainly not reproducing the components like neurons and glial cells. We should keep in mind principally one characteristic of the process of thinking unfolding in a brain: there is a complex neural, biochemical, electrical activation movement happening. This movement is coupled to a similar but of a different mode in the nervous system deployed in the whole body. This complex movement generates, by selective emergence and by reaching a particular configuration, what we call a thought about something. This thought rapidly leads to actuators or language activity and descends then in the following thought which can be similar or different. This is the very complex phenomenon that has to be transposed into the computable domain.
Hence, we should approach the sudden appearance of thoughts in brains at the level of the complex dynamics of a system building and reconfiguring recurrent and temporized flow. We can transpose this into computer processes architectures containing symbolic meaning and we should make it geometrically self-controlled. Two reasonable hypotheses are made for this transposition:
• analogy between the geometrical dynamics of the real brain and of the artificial brain. For one, flows are complex images, almost continuous; for the other, these are dynamical graphs which deformations are evaluated topologically.
• combinatory complexity reduction of the real brain in the computable domain by using symbolic and pre-language level for this approach. The basic elements are completely different; they are not of the same scale.
However, once these hypotheses made, one should not start to develop an architecture that will operate its own control from the aspects of its changing geometry. One needs to ask the proper question about consciousness fact generation. A philosopher, a couple of decades ago, M. Heidegger, asked the proper question: what brings us to think about this thing right here right now? The answer, quite elaborate, to this question will conduct to a system architecture choice that will take us away from reactive or deductive systems. The system will generate intentionally its consciousness facts, intention as P. Ricoeur understood it. There are no consciousness facts without intention to think. This settles the question, considered as a formidable, of freedom to think. One thinks of everything according to his memory and his intuition on the moment, but only if it is expressible as a thought by the system producing thoughts. Some might see something infinite in this process; however it is not our case. A finite set of component which movements occur in a finite space has only a finite number of states in which it can be. Also, as the permanence of the physical real apprehensible by the sense is very strong, the preoccupation to think by man is quite limited, in his civilizations. Let us point out that artificial systems that will think artificially will be able to communicate directly at the level of forms of the ideas, without using a language mediator, and hence, would be co-active as well as being numerous in space.
For different reasons, numerous people think that the path of artificial consciousness’ investigation should not be taken at all. I feel differently, because, discoveries have been the very root of our existence, from fire to the mighty F-16s. The mind is a work of art moulded in mystery, and any effort to unlock its doors should be encouraged because, I am sure, that its discovery is only going to help us respect the great architect more.



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Service Oriented Architecture

ABSTRACT


SOA is a design for linking business and computational resources (principally organizations, applications and data) on demand to achieve the desired results for service consumers (which can be end users or other services). Service-orientation describes an architecture that uses loosely coupled services to support the requirements of business processes and users. Resources on a network in a SOA environment are made available as independent services that can be accessed without knowledge of their underlying platform implementation. These concepts can be applied to business, software and other types of producer/consumer systems.

The main drivers for SOA adoption are that it links computational resources and promotes their reuse. Enterprise architecture believe that SOA can help businesses respond more quickly and cost-effectively to changing market conditions. This style of architecture promotes reuse at the macro(service) level rather than micro(objects) level.

The following guiding principles define the ground rules for development, maintenance, and usage of the SOA
• Reuse, granularity, modularity, composability, componentization, and interoperability
• Compliance to standards (both common and industry-specific)
• Services identification and categorization, provisioning and delivery, and monitoring and tracking.
One obvious and common challenge faced is managing service metadata. Another challenge is providing appropriate levels of security. Interoperability is another important aspect in the SOA implementations.



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