Femtocells Technology

ABSTRACT

      Femtocells, a technology little-known outside the wireless world, promise better indoor cellular service. In telecommunication, a Femtocell is a small cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business. It connects to the service provider’s network via broadband. Current designs typically support 2 to 4 active mobile phones in a residential setting, and 8 to 16 active mobile phones in enterprise settings. A Femtocell allows service providers to extend service coverage indoors, especially where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable. For a mobile operator, the attractions of a Femtocell are improvements to both coverage and capacity, especially indoors. This can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense.

      A Femtocell is typically the size of a residential gateway or smaller, and connects into the end-user’s broadband line. Once plugged in, the Femtocell connects to the MNO’s mobile network, and provides extra coverage in a range of typically 30 to 50 meters for residential Femtocells.

      The end-user must declare which mobile phone numbers are allowed to connect to his/her Femtocell, usually via a web interface provided by the MNO. When these mobile phones arrive under coverage of the Femtocell, they switch over from the Macrocell (outdoor) to the Femtocell automatically. Most MNOs provide means for the end-user to know this has happened, for example by having a different network name appear on the mobile phone. All communications will then automatically go through the Femtocell. When the end-user leaves the Femtocell coverage (whether in a call or not), his phone hands over seamlessly to the macro network.

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Impedance Glottography

ABSTRACT

Impedance Glottography is noninvasive measurement of the time variation of the degree of contact between the vibrating vocal folds during voice production. The aspect of contact being measured is called the vocal fold contact area (VFCA). To measure VFCA, the device used is called impedance glottograph. The device is also called electroglottograph or laryngograph. The principle of operation of device, the waveform obtained, an algorithm for determination of pitch period is discussed. EGG waveform for various voice qualities, drawbacks in EGG and various noises present are described. Concept of multichannel EGG and applications of electroglottography are discussed.

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Performance Evaluation of Efficient and Reliable Routing Protocols for Fixed-Power Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT

A Fixed–power wireless sensor networks are cost effective and prevalent, and they are facing lots of problems like RF interference, node failure from environmental noise and energy constraints. A routing protocol for Fixed – power wireless sensor networks must overcome these problems. Because it have to achieve reliability, energy efficiency and scalability in message delivery. In this paper, we propose an efficient and reliable routing protocol (EAR) that achieves reliable and scalable performance with minimal compromise of energy efficiency. The routing design of EAR is based on four parameters – expected path length and a weighted combination of distance traversed, energy levels and link transmission success history, to dynamically determine and maintain the best routes. We will evaluate the performance of efficient and reliable routing protocols for such networks.

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Mobile Virtual Reality Services

ABSTRACT


This paper addresses the capability needed in telecommunication system to support mobile access to real-time sights and sounds of a complex environment defined as a virtual reality service (VRS) episode. The constant development of terminal and networking equipment are paving way for the provision of a VRS and the creation of VRS episodes. This paper describes a mobile VRS environment in general and the core architecture and describes the various entities employed to perform a VRS episode setup task. The proposed VRS architecture is in full harmony with the preceding generation of all-IP multimedia networks currently under study in the third generation partnership project.



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