Skinput

ABSTRACT

Skinput is an input technology that uses bio-acoustics sensing to localize finger taps on the skin. When augmented with a pico projector, the device can provide a direct manipulation, graphical user interface on the body. The technology was developed by Chris Harrison, Desney Tan and Dan Morris at Microsoft Research’s Computational User experience Group.

Skinput represents one way to decouple input from electronic devices with the aim of allowing devices to become smaller without simultaneously shrinking the surface area on which input can be performed. While other systems, like Sixth sense have attempted this with computer vision, Skinput employs acoustics, which take the advantage of the human body’s natural sound conductive properties. This allows the body to be annexed as an input surface without the need for the skin to be invasively instrumented with sensors, tracking, markers, or other items.

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Issues of Routing IN VANET

ABSTRACT

Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a sub class of mobile ad hoc networks. VANET provides wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipments. The communication between vehicles is used for safety, comfort and for entertainment as well. The performance of communication depends on how better the routing takes place in the network. Routing of data depends on the routing protocols being used in network. In this study different ad hoc routing protocols for VANET are studied. The main aim of this study is to identify which ad hoc routing method has better performance in highly mobile environment of VANET. To measure the performance of routing protocols in VANET, two different scenarios i.e. city and highway are considered. Routing protocols were selected carefully after carrying out literature review. The selected protocols were then evaluated through simulation in terms of performance metrics i.e. throughput and packet drop. After simulation results, MATLAB can be used to plot the graph to compare the results of selected routing protocols with each other.

From the results, it is observed that A-STAR shows better performance in terms of high throughput and low packet drop as compared to AODV and GPSR in city environment, while GPSR shows better performance as compared to AODV in both highway and city environment of VANET. Based on the results of performance metrics in different environments of VANET, it is realized that position based routing method of VANET outperformed the traditional ad hoc topology based routing. In VANET the protocol performance depends on vehicle speed, driving environment etc. that may vary from one environment of network to another.

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Wearable Health Care System on Textile Platform

ABSTRACT

A comfortable health monitoring system is based on a wearable interface implemented by integrating fabric sensors, advanced signal processing techniques and modern telecommunication systems, on a textile platform. Conducting and piezoresistive materials in form of fiber and yarn are integrated in a garment and used as sensors, connectors and electrode elements. Simultaneous recording of vital signs allows extrapolation of more complex parameters and inter-signal elaboration that contribute to produce alert message and synoptic patient table. The system is designed to be minimally invasive, comfortable and wearable, where the knitted fabric sensors and electrodes are distributed and connected to an electronic portable unit, the acquired signals can then be transmitted to a monitoring system.

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Unified Theory of Electrification in Natural Processes

ABSTRACT

Electrification in natural processes is explained by photochemical reactions initiated by electromagnetic (EM) radiation induced in nanoparticles (NPs) by quantum electrodynamics (QED). The NPs ubiquitous to natural processes produce EM radiation depending on the thermal kT of atoms that at ambient temperature is emitted in the far infrared (FIR). However, EM radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) levels is required to initiate photochemical reactions, and therefore a mechanism is required to increase the frequency from the FIR to VUV levels – the mechanism called QED induced EM radiation. How the NPs form depends on the specific natural process, but all processes are unified by the VUV radiation induced in NPs by QED. For example, static electricity comprising positive and negative charges is produced from VUV induced in NPs that form in the rubbing of dissimilar solids, atmospheric electricity is produced by hydronium and hydroxyl ions from VUV induced in ice NPs as water vapor freezes at high altitudes, and flow electricity is produced by cations and electrons from VUV induced in NPs that form as clusters in turbulence. Prior applications of QED induced EM radiation were based on the EM confinement of FIR radiation in nanovoids (NVs) – bubbles in liquids and gaps in solids. But difficulties with NVs in this regard led to the conclusion that NPs whether liquid or solid are the most likely EM confinement of FIR radiation in natural processes. Compared to NVs, NPs assure EM confinement of FIR radiation to allow frequency up-conversion to VUV levels. Electrification first occurs at the instant the NPs form as the thermal kT energy of the atoms forming the NP is released in a burst of VUV radiation. Steady VUV is then produced as the NP recovers the thermal kT energy lost in the burst from blackbody (BB) radiation in the ambient surroundings. Either way, FIR radiation from the atoms within the NP is suppressed by QED because the FIR frequency is lower than the EM confinement frequency of NPs. To conserve EM energy, QED requires the kT energy loss corresponding to the suppressed IR radiation to be gained at the EM confinement frequency of the NP – typically in the VUV. In this way, the NPs produce the VUV radiation that by photochemical reaction with chemical species to produce charge in natural processes.

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Haptics

ABSTRACT

‘Haptics’ is a technology that adds the sense of touch to virtual environments. Users are given the illusion that they are touching or manipulating a real physical object.
This seminar discusses the important concepts in haptics, some of the most commonly used haptics systems like ‘Phantom’, ‘Cyberglove’, ‘Novint Falcon’ and such similar devices. Following this, a description about how sensors and actuators are used for tracking the position and movement of the haptic systems, is provided.
The different types of force rendering algorithms are discussed next. The seminar explains the blocks in force rendering. Then a few applications of haptic systems are taken up for discussion.

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Impedance Glottography

ABSTRACT

Impedance Glottography is noninvasive measurement of the time variation of the degree of contact between the vibrating vocal folds during voice production. The aspect of contact being measured is called the vocal fold contact area (VFCA). To measure VFCA, the device used is called impedance glottograph. The device is also called electroglottograph or laryngograph. The principle of operation of device, the waveform obtained, an algorithm for determination of pitch period is discussed. EGG waveform for various voice qualities, drawbacks in EGG and various noises present are described. Concept of multichannel EGG and applications of electroglottography are discussed.

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Halo Networks

ABSTRACT


The High Altitude Long Operation Network is a broadband wireless metropolitan area network, with a star topology, whose solitary hub is located in the atmosphere above the service area at an altitude higher than commercial airline traffic. The HALO/Proteus airplane is the central node of this network. It will fly at altitudes higher than 51,000 ft. The signal footprint of the network, its “Cone of Commerce,” will have a diameter on the scale of 100 km. The initial capacity of the network will be on the scale of 10 Gb/s, with growth beyond 100 Gb/s. The network will serve the communications needs of each subscriber with bit rates in the multimegabit per second range. A variety of spectrum bands licensed by the FCC for commercial wireless services could provide the needed millimeter wavelength carrier bandwidth. An attractive choice for the subscriber links is the LMDS band.

The airplane’s fuselage can house switching circuitry and fast digital network functions. An MMW antenna array and its related components will be located in a pod suspended below the aircraft fuselage. The antenna array will produce many beams, typically more than 100. Adjacent beams will be separated in frequency. Electronic beamforming techniques can be used to stabilize the beams on the ground, as the airplane flies within its station keeping volume. For the alternative of aircraft-fixed beams, the beams will traverse over a user location, while the airplane maintains station overhead, and the virtual path will be changed to accomplish the beam-to-beam handoff. For each isolated city to be served, a fleet of three aircraft will be operated in shifts to achieve around-the-clock service. In deployments where multiple cities will be served from a common primary flight base, the fleet will be sized for allocating, on average, two aircraft per city to be served. Flight operational tactics will be steadily evolved and refined to achieve continuous presence of the node above each city. Many services will be provided, including but not limited to T1 access, ISDN access, Web browsing, high-resolution videoconferencing, large file transfers, and Ethernet LAN bridging.



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