Brain Machine Interface

ABSTRACT


A brain-machine interface is a communication system that does not depend on the brains normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. It is a new communication link between a functioning human brain and the outside world. These are electronic interfaces with the brain, which has the ability to send and receive signals from the brain. BMI uses brain activity to command, control, actuate and communicate with the world directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems. The signals from the brain are taken to the computer via the implants for data entry without any direct brain intervention. BMI transforms mental decisions and/or reactions into control signals by analyzing the bioelectrical brain activity.
While linking the brain directly with machines was once considered science fiction, advances over the past few years have made it increasingly viable. It is an area of intense research with almost limitless possibilities. The human brain is the most complex physical system we know of, and we would have to understand its operation in great detail to build such a device. An immediate goal of brain-machine interface study is to provide a way for people with damaged sensory/motor functions to use their brain to control artificial devices and restore lost capabilities. By combining the latest developments in computer technology and hi-tech engineering, paralyzed persons will be able to control a motorized wheel chair, computer painter, or robotic arm by thought alone. In this era where drastic diseases are getting common it is a boon if we can develop it to its full potential. Recent technical and theoretical advances, have demonstrated the ultimate feasibility of this concept for a wide range of space-based applications. Besides the clinical purposes such an interface would find immediate applications in various technology products also.



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Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

ABSTRACT


Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a protocol developed by IETF MMUSIC Working Group and proposed standard for initiating, modifying, and terminating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video, voice, instant messaging, online games, and virtual reality.
SIP clients traditionally use TCP and UDP port 5060 to connect to SIP servers and other SIP endpoints. SIP is primarily used in setting up and tearing down voice or video calls. However, it can be used in any application where session initiation is a requirement. These include, Event Subscription and Notification, Terminal mobility and so on. There are a large number of SIP-related RFCs that define behavior for such applications. All voice/video communications are done over RTP.
A motivating goal for SIP was to provide a signaling and call setup protocol for IP-based communications that can support a superset of the call processing functions and features present in the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
SIP enabled telephony networks can also implement many of the more advanced call processing features present in Signalling System 7 (SS7), though the two protocols themselves are very different. SS7 is a highly centralized protocol, characterized by highly complex central network architecture and dumb endpoints (traditional telephone handsets). SIP is a peer-to-peer protocol.



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SOI POWER DEVICES

ABSTRACT


This paper provides an introduction to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology and the operating principles of high-voltage SOI devices, reviews the performance of the available SOI switching devices in comparison with standard silicon devices, discusses the reasoning behind the use of SOI technology in power applications and covers the most advanced novel power SOI devices proposed to date. The impact of SOI technology on power integrated circuits (PICs) and the problems associated with the integration of high-voltage and low-voltage CMOS are also analyzed.



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Halo Networks

ABSTRACT


The High Altitude Long Operation Network is a broadband wireless metropolitan area network, with a star topology, whose solitary hub is located in the atmosphere above the service area at an altitude higher than commercial airline traffic. The HALO/Proteus airplane is the central node of this network. It will fly at altitudes higher than 51,000 ft. The signal footprint of the network, its “Cone of Commerce,” will have a diameter on the scale of 100 km. The initial capacity of the network will be on the scale of 10 Gb/s, with growth beyond 100 Gb/s. The network will serve the communications needs of each subscriber with bit rates in the multimegabit per second range. A variety of spectrum bands licensed by the FCC for commercial wireless services could provide the needed millimeter wavelength carrier bandwidth. An attractive choice for the subscriber links is the LMDS band.

The airplane’s fuselage can house switching circuitry and fast digital network functions. An MMW antenna array and its related components will be located in a pod suspended below the aircraft fuselage. The antenna array will produce many beams, typically more than 100. Adjacent beams will be separated in frequency. Electronic beamforming techniques can be used to stabilize the beams on the ground, as the airplane flies within its station keeping volume. For the alternative of aircraft-fixed beams, the beams will traverse over a user location, while the airplane maintains station overhead, and the virtual path will be changed to accomplish the beam-to-beam handoff. For each isolated city to be served, a fleet of three aircraft will be operated in shifts to achieve around-the-clock service. In deployments where multiple cities will be served from a common primary flight base, the fleet will be sized for allocating, on average, two aircraft per city to be served. Flight operational tactics will be steadily evolved and refined to achieve continuous presence of the node above each city. Many services will be provided, including but not limited to T1 access, ISDN access, Web browsing, high-resolution videoconferencing, large file transfers, and Ethernet LAN bridging.



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Resilient Packet Ring Technology

ABSTRACT


Resilient Packet Ring Technology were developed recognizing the shortcomings in the existing network solutions which are Gigabit Ethernet, SONET/SDH and ATM.

RPR retains the best attributes of SONET/SDH, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet. RPR is optimized for differentiated IP and other packet data services, while providing uncompromised quality circuit voice and private line services. It works in point to point, leniar, ring or mesh networks, providing ring survivability in less than 50milliseconds.RPR dynamically and statistically multiplexes all services into the entire available bandwidth in both directions of the ring while preserving bandwidth and service quality guarantees on a per-cutomer, per-service basis. It does all this at a fraction of the cost of legacy SONET/SDH and ATM solutions.

RPR has a MAC layer technology, being standardized in the IEEE 802.17 workgroup. This employs special reuse to maximize bandwidth utilization, provides a distributed fairness algorithm, and ensures high –speed traffic protection similar to SONET Automatic Protection Switching(APS).



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MiniDisc

ABSTRACT


The MiniDisc system was designed with the obvious objective of replacing the conventional Compact Cassette tape recorder system. The quick random access of Compact Disc players has become a necessity for music lovers. The high quality of digital sound is now the norm. The future of personal audio, meet the above criteria and more. That’s why a MiniDisc was created which was a revolutionary evolution in the field of digital audio based on an advanced miniature optical disc. The MD offers consumers quick random access, durability and high sound quality of optical media, as well as superb compactness, shock resistant portability, and recordability. In short, the MD format has been created to meet the needs of personal music entertainment in the future. Based on a dazzling array of new technologies, the MiniDisc offers a new lifestyle in personal audio enjoyment. Furthermore, MiniDisc was evolved into the MD Data system and with a data capacity of 140 Mbytes and a very compact size, the MD Data system is expected to become one of the standards for removable data storage systems.



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Integration of IT in machine tools

ABSTRACT


Today’s buzzword “IT” has revolutionized every aspects of our day today working lives. Automation of industries is one of its main contributions. Automation can be defined as technology concerned with the application mechanical, electronic and computer-based systems to operate and control production. . The main advantage of automation is increased labor productivity at reduced labor cost. The heart of machine tool is a CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) system, which coordinates with the displays, PLC, drives system, and feed back systems. This paper deals with the data acquisition, program management and remote diagnosis of the system

Numerical control is for of programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a mechanical tool or other equipment are controlled by a program containing coded alphanumeric data. Computerized numerical control (CNC) is defined as an NC system who’s MCU is based on a dedicated microcomputer rather than a hardwired controller.

Remote diagnosis or Tele service offers remote support for CNC systems, making it a cost-effective alternative to service calls. Lot of time can be saved by this.



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