Nokia Morph Technology

ABSTRACT

In business a product could have a shorter life if it can’t win the hearts of people and showcase new technology, so Nokia is coming up with the Nokia Morph flexible mobile phone which the company claims include nanotechnology and would immensely benefit its end-users. The main benefit of Nanotechnology is that its components are flexible, transparent and extremely strong. The company believes this latest technology would be a distinctive phone by 2015, but a few technical glitches remain to be solved, like the use of new battery materials etc.

Nokia morph is a joint technology concept, developed by Nokia Research Center (NRC) and the University of Cambridge (UK). The morph demonstrate how future mobile device might be stretchable and flexible, allowing the user to transform their mobile devices into radically different shaped. It demonstrates the ultimately that nanotechnology might be capable of delivering: flexible material, transparent electronics and self-cleaning surface. Fibril proteins are woven into three dimensional meshes that reinforce thin elastic structures. Using the same principle behind spider silk, this elasticity enables the device to literally changes shapes and configure itself to adapt to the task at hand.

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Skinput

ABSTRACT

Skinput is an input technology that uses bio-acoustics sensing to localize finger taps on the skin. When augmented with a pico projector, the device can provide a direct manipulation, graphical user interface on the body. The technology was developed by Chris Harrison, Desney Tan and Dan Morris at Microsoft Research’s Computational User experience Group.

Skinput represents one way to decouple input from electronic devices with the aim of allowing devices to become smaller without simultaneously shrinking the surface area on which input can be performed. While other systems, like Sixth sense have attempted this with computer vision, Skinput employs acoustics, which take the advantage of the human body’s natural sound conductive properties. This allows the body to be annexed as an input surface without the need for the skin to be invasively instrumented with sensors, tracking, markers, or other items.

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Emotional Annotation of Text

ABSTRACT

Emotion is at the core of understanding ourselves and others, and the automatic expression and detection of emotion could enhance our experience with technologies. Emotion analysis is a rapidly developing area in computational linguistics. With the advent of affective computing, the task of adequately identifying, representing and processing the emotional connotations of text has acquired importance. This seminar concentrates on how the emotion of the text is annotated. The emotion of a sentence of text should be derived by composition of the emotions of the words in the sentence. Existing approaches to this task rely most often on a simplified representation of the sentence as a bag of words, where all words contribute in equal measure. However, intuitively certain words can probably be considered more significant; depending on the role they play in the word from their syntactic or semantic structure. Of the various existing approaches for representing emotions, some are better suited for some problems and some for others. In this seminar I am focusing on the various problems and the technologies used to implement the same and how the emotional annotation of a text is done by ontological reasoning.

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Fluorescent Multilayer Disc (FMD)

ABSTRACT

Compact discs were a revolutionary product at its time and influenced many spheres of human activity. People started recording music of high quality, which didn’t get worse with the time as it happens to be on tape. As soon as CDs appeared in computer industry they immediately became an undoubted helper both for users and for programmers. The latter were able to increase volume of their program products by adding video and audio elements etc. Later discs were used for digital video (VideoCD).

But technologies are progressing. Data are growing faster and faster. A usual CD is far not enough (640 MBytes). So, there appeared DVD technology. Of course we are happy with those 17 GBytes that can be kept on one DVD disc, but this is a limiting point. So we need a completely new method of storing information on portable data medium. And at last, the company Constellation 3D demonstrates a new format: FMD (Fluorescent Multilayer Disk), which can provide us with a staggering 140 GB of storage space seems to be an enticing solution for the storage-hungry masses.

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Impedance Glottography

ABSTRACT

Impedance Glottography is noninvasive measurement of the time variation of the degree of contact between the vibrating vocal folds during voice production. The aspect of contact being measured is called the vocal fold contact area (VFCA). To measure VFCA, the device used is called impedance glottograph. The device is also called electroglottograph or laryngograph. The principle of operation of device, the waveform obtained, an algorithm for determination of pitch period is discussed. EGG waveform for various voice qualities, drawbacks in EGG and various noises present are described. Concept of multichannel EGG and applications of electroglottography are discussed.

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Rover technology

ABSTRACT

Location-aware computing involves the automatic tailoring of information and services based on the current location of the user. We have designed and implemented Rover, a system that enables location-based services, as well as the traditional time-aware, user-aware and device-aware services. To achieve system scalability to very large client sets, Rover servers are implemented in an “action-based” concurrent software architecture that enables fine-grained application-specific scheduling of tasks. We have demonstrated feasibility through implementations for both outdoor and indoor environments on multiple platforms. The intriguing aspect of this scenario is the automatic tailoring of information and services based on the current location of the user. We refer to this paradigm as location-aware computing.

The different technology components needed to realize location-aware computing are present today, powered by the increasing capabilities of mobile personal computing devices and the increasing deployment of wireless connectivity (IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs [7], Bluetooth [1], Infra-red [2], Cellular services, etc.). Location-aware, in addition to the more traditional notions of time-aware, user-aware, and device-aware. Rover has a location service that can track the location of every user, either by automated location determination technology (for example, using signal strength or time difference) or by the user manually entering current location (for example, by clicking on a map).

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Embedded OS for Real-Time Applications

ABSTRACT

The advent of microprocessors has opened up several product opportunities that simply did not exist earlier. These intelligent processors have invaded and embedded themselves into all fields of our lives be it the kitchen (food processors, microwave ovens), the living rooms (televisions, air conditioners) or the work places (fax machines, pagers, laser printer, credit card readers) …etc.

As the complexities in the embedded applications increase, use of an operating system brings in lot of advantages. Most embedded systems also have real-time requirements demanding the use of Real time Operating Systems (RTOS) capable of meeting the embedded system requirements. Real-time Operating System allows realtime applications to be designed and expanded easily. The use of an RTOS simplifies the design process by splitting the application code into separate tasks. An RTOS allows one to make better use of the system recourses by providing with valuable services such as semaphores, mailboxes, queues, time delays, time outs…etc.

This report looks at the basic concepts of embedded systems, operating systems and specifically at Real Time Operating Systems in order to identify the features one has to look for in an RTOS before it is used in a real-time embedded application. Some of the popular RTOS have been discussed in brief, giving their salient features, which make them suitable for different applications.

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Zone Based Ant Colony Routing In MANET

ABSTRACT

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems like routing in computer networks. The idea of this optimization is based on the food accumulation methodology of the ant community. Position based routing algorithms (POSANT) had some significant loopholes to find route like it never guarantees the route would be the shortest one, in cases while it is able to find it. The routing algorithms which are based on ant colony optimization find routing paths that are close in length to the shortest paths. The drawback of these algorithms is the large number of control messages that needs to be sent or the long delay before the routes are established from a source to a destination.This paper presents a new routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc network by combining the concept of Ant Colony approach and Zone based routing approach using clustering to get shortest path with small number of control messages to minimize the overhead. Also this shows that zone based ant colony routing algorithm using cluster is more efficient than POSANT routing algorithm by comparative Overhead study of POSANT and Zone based Ant using clustering concept with respect to varying Node Number, Zone Size and Mobility.

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Audio CAPTCHA: Existing solutions assessment and a new implementation for VoIP telephony

ABSTRACT

SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is a potential source of future annoyance in Voice over IP (VoIP) systems. A typical way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (i.e., bot), which generates calls and produces unsolicited audio messages. A known way to protect against SPAM is a Reverse Turing Test, called CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computer and Humans Apart). In this paper, we evaluate existing audio CAPTCHA, as this type of format is more suitable for VoIP systems, to help them fight bots. To do so, we first suggest specific attributes-requirements that an audio CAPTCHA should meet in order to be effective. Then, we evaluate this set of popular audio CAPTCHA, and demonstrate that there is no existing implementation suit-able enough for VoIP environments. Next, we develop and implement a new audio CAPTCHA, which is suitable for SIP-based VoIP telephony. Finally, the new CAPTCHA is tested against users and bots and demonstrated to be efficient.

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Trends in Optical Switching Techniques

ABSTRACT

We are currently witnessing a strong worldwide push toward bringing fiber closer to individual homes and businesses. The emerging FTTX access networks will move the bandwidth bottleneck from the first/last mile toward metropolitan and wide area networks, creating a need for efficient optical-switching mechanisms. In this article, we review the current trends in optical switching that help to improve the bandwidth efficiency, as well as to decrease the cost and power consumption of next-generation optical networks. Our review provides an overview of the optical switching domain and facilitates the understanding of newly emerging switching techniques and their interpretation as derivatives of the presented main optical switching trends.

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