Femtocells Technology

ABSTRACT

      Femtocells, a technology little-known outside the wireless world, promise better indoor cellular service. In telecommunication, a Femtocell is a small cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business. It connects to the service provider’s network via broadband. Current designs typically support 2 to 4 active mobile phones in a residential setting, and 8 to 16 active mobile phones in enterprise settings. A Femtocell allows service providers to extend service coverage indoors, especially where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable. For a mobile operator, the attractions of a Femtocell are improvements to both coverage and capacity, especially indoors. This can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense.

      A Femtocell is typically the size of a residential gateway or smaller, and connects into the end-user’s broadband line. Once plugged in, the Femtocell connects to the MNO’s mobile network, and provides extra coverage in a range of typically 30 to 50 meters for residential Femtocells.

      The end-user must declare which mobile phone numbers are allowed to connect to his/her Femtocell, usually via a web interface provided by the MNO. When these mobile phones arrive under coverage of the Femtocell, they switch over from the Macrocell (outdoor) to the Femtocell automatically. Most MNOs provide means for the end-user to know this has happened, for example by having a different network name appear on the mobile phone. All communications will then automatically go through the Femtocell. When the end-user leaves the Femtocell coverage (whether in a call or not), his phone hands over seamlessly to the macro network.

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Embedded OS for Real-Time Applications

ABSTRACT

The advent of microprocessors has opened up several product opportunities that simply did not exist earlier. These intelligent processors have invaded and embedded themselves into all fields of our lives be it the kitchen (food processors, microwave ovens), the living rooms (televisions, air conditioners) or the work places (fax machines, pagers, laser printer, credit card readers) …etc.

As the complexities in the embedded applications increase, use of an operating system brings in lot of advantages. Most embedded systems also have real-time requirements demanding the use of Real time Operating Systems (RTOS) capable of meeting the embedded system requirements. Real-time Operating System allows realtime applications to be designed and expanded easily. The use of an RTOS simplifies the design process by splitting the application code into separate tasks. An RTOS allows one to make better use of the system recourses by providing with valuable services such as semaphores, mailboxes, queues, time delays, time outs…etc.

This report looks at the basic concepts of embedded systems, operating systems and specifically at Real Time Operating Systems in order to identify the features one has to look for in an RTOS before it is used in a real-time embedded application. Some of the popular RTOS have been discussed in brief, giving their salient features, which make them suitable for different applications.

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Parasitic Computing

ABSTRACT


“PARASITE” as the word suggests is an entity that resides on another entity exploiting the resources of the latter. The term “PARASITIC COMPUTING” refers to the technique of using the resources of one computer by another computer without the knowledge of the former. Distributed computing networks turn home users’ computers into part of a virtual supercomputer that can perform time-intensive operations. This seminar provides an insight into the details of how parasitic computing uses the computation power of the computers connected to the internet in solving complex mathematical problems. This technique was developed by the scientist at the Notre Dame University, Indiana (USA). According to the scientists, the transmission control protocol (TCP), could be used to solve a piece of a mathematical problem whose answer could then be relayed back to the original user. The implementation is discussed with the NP-Complete problem as example. Unlike hackers who exploit flaws to gain direct access to machines, the Notre Dame computer scientists created a virtual computer by using the fundamental components of distributed computing.



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