Unified Theory of Electrification in Natural Processes

ABSTRACT

Electrification in natural processes is explained by photochemical reactions initiated by electromagnetic (EM) radiation induced in nanoparticles (NPs) by quantum electrodynamics (QED). The NPs ubiquitous to natural processes produce EM radiation depending on the thermal kT of atoms that at ambient temperature is emitted in the far infrared (FIR). However, EM radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) levels is required to initiate photochemical reactions, and therefore a mechanism is required to increase the frequency from the FIR to VUV levels – the mechanism called QED induced EM radiation. How the NPs form depends on the specific natural process, but all processes are unified by the VUV radiation induced in NPs by QED. For example, static electricity comprising positive and negative charges is produced from VUV induced in NPs that form in the rubbing of dissimilar solids, atmospheric electricity is produced by hydronium and hydroxyl ions from VUV induced in ice NPs as water vapor freezes at high altitudes, and flow electricity is produced by cations and electrons from VUV induced in NPs that form as clusters in turbulence. Prior applications of QED induced EM radiation were based on the EM confinement of FIR radiation in nanovoids (NVs) – bubbles in liquids and gaps in solids. But difficulties with NVs in this regard led to the conclusion that NPs whether liquid or solid are the most likely EM confinement of FIR radiation in natural processes. Compared to NVs, NPs assure EM confinement of FIR radiation to allow frequency up-conversion to VUV levels. Electrification first occurs at the instant the NPs form as the thermal kT energy of the atoms forming the NP is released in a burst of VUV radiation. Steady VUV is then produced as the NP recovers the thermal kT energy lost in the burst from blackbody (BB) radiation in the ambient surroundings. Either way, FIR radiation from the atoms within the NP is suppressed by QED because the FIR frequency is lower than the EM confinement frequency of NPs. To conserve EM energy, QED requires the kT energy loss corresponding to the suppressed IR radiation to be gained at the EM confinement frequency of the NP – typically in the VUV. In this way, the NPs produce the VUV radiation that by photochemical reaction with chemical species to produce charge in natural processes.

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Impedance Glottography

ABSTRACT

Impedance Glottography is noninvasive measurement of the time variation of the degree of contact between the vibrating vocal folds during voice production. The aspect of contact being measured is called the vocal fold contact area (VFCA). To measure VFCA, the device used is called impedance glottograph. The device is also called electroglottograph or laryngograph. The principle of operation of device, the waveform obtained, an algorithm for determination of pitch period is discussed. EGG waveform for various voice qualities, drawbacks in EGG and various noises present are described. Concept of multichannel EGG and applications of electroglottography are discussed.

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Tempest and Echelon

ABSTRACT


TEMPEST and ECHELON are the method of spying in a sophisticated manner; both are developed by National Security Agency (NSA) for monitoring the people. These technologies are originally developed for pure military espionage, but hackers use them now for spying in to other people’s activities.

Tempest is the technology, which can reproduce what you are seeing in your monitor, what you are typing in your keyboard from a couple of kilometers away. It traces all electromagnetic radiation from the victim’s monitor, keyboard, even pc memory and hard disk, then it reproduces the signals. By using this technology it is possible to intrude (only listening) in to a person’s computer from a couple of kilometers away, even it is a computer which is not “Networked” and enables the intruder to hack without any connection to the victim’s computer.

Echelon is the spying on a large network by sniffing through the words. It is the ongoing secret project of NSA and it’s counterparts in UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It can intercept as many as 2 million communications per hour through phone calls, faxes, e-mails, downloads, microwave, cellular, satellite communication etc..
As quoted above it is developed for military purposes but it is now used for spying on organizations, business and individuals.

This seminar describes about the various methods employed in spying with the help of Tempest and Echelon.



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