Skinput

ABSTRACT

Skinput is an input technology that uses bio-acoustics sensing to localize finger taps on the skin. When augmented with a pico projector, the device can provide a direct manipulation, graphical user interface on the body. The technology was developed by Chris Harrison, Desney Tan and Dan Morris at Microsoft Research’s Computational User experience Group.

Skinput represents one way to decouple input from electronic devices with the aim of allowing devices to become smaller without simultaneously shrinking the surface area on which input can be performed. While other systems, like Sixth sense have attempted this with computer vision, Skinput employs acoustics, which take the advantage of the human body’s natural sound conductive properties. This allows the body to be annexed as an input surface without the need for the skin to be invasively instrumented with sensors, tracking, markers, or other items.

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Tempest and Echelon

ABSTRACT


TEMPEST and ECHELON are the method of spying in a sophisticated manner; both are developed by National Security Agency (NSA) for monitoring the people. These technologies are originally developed for pure military espionage, but hackers use them now for spying in to other people’s activities.

Tempest is the technology, which can reproduce what you are seeing in your monitor, what you are typing in your keyboard from a couple of kilometers away. It traces all electromagnetic radiation from the victim’s monitor, keyboard, even pc memory and hard disk, then it reproduces the signals. By using this technology it is possible to intrude (only listening) in to a person’s computer from a couple of kilometers away, even it is a computer which is not “Networked” and enables the intruder to **** without any connection to the victim’s computer.

Echelon is the spying on a large network by sniffing through the words. It is the ongoing secret project of NSA and it’s counterparts in UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It can intercept as many as 2 million communications per hour through phone calls, faxes, e-mails, downloads, microwave, cellular, satellite communication etc..
As quoted above it is developed for military purposes but it is now used for spying on organizations, business and individuals.

This seminar describes about the various methods employed in spying with the help of Tempest and Echelon



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Chameleon Chips

ABSTRACT


Chameleon chips are chips whose circuitry can be tailored specifically for the problem at hand. Chameleon chips would be an extension of what can already be done with field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAS). An FPGA is covered with a grid of wires. At each crossover, there’s a switch that can be semipermanently opened or closed by sending it a special signal. Usually the chip must first be inserted in a little box that sends the programming signals. But now, labs in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. are developing techniques to rewire FPGA-like chips anytime–and even software that can map out circuitry that’s optimized for specific problems.

The chips still won’t change colors. But they may well color the way we use computers in years to come. It is a fusion between custom integrated circuits and programmable logic.in the case when we are doing highly performance oriented tasks custom chips that do one or two things spectacularly rather than lot of things averagely is used. Now using field programmed chips we have chips that can be rewired in an instant. Thus the benefits of customization can be brought to the mass market.



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