Co-operative Linux

ABSTRACT

This seminar describes Cooperative Linux, a port of the Linux kernel that allows it to run as an unprivileged lightweight virtual machine in kernel mode, on top of another OS kernel. It allows Linux to run under any operating system that supports loading drivers, such as Windows or Linux, after minimal porting efforts. The paper includes the present and future implementation details, its applications, and its comparison with other Linux virtualization methods. Among the technical details, it also presents the CPU-complete context switch code, hardware interrupt forwarding, the interface between the host OS and Linux, and the management of the VM‘s pseudo physical RAM.

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PILL CAMERA

ABSTRACT

The aim of technology is to make products in a large scale for cheaper prices and increased quality. The current technologies have attained a part of it, but the manufacturing technology is at macro level. The future lies in manufacturing product right from the molecular level. Research in this direction started way back in eighties. At that time manufacturing at molecular and atomic level was laughed about. But due to advent of nanotecnlogy we have realized it to a certain level. One such product manufactured is PILL CAMERA, which is used for the treatment of cancer, ulcer and anemia. It has made revolution in the field of medicine.

This tiny capsule can pass through our body, without causing any harm.

It takes pictures of our intestine and transmits the same to the receiver of the Computer analysis of our digestive system. This process can help in tracking any kind of disease related to digestive system. Also we have discussed the drawbacks of PILL CAMERA and how these drawbacks can be overcome using Grain sized motor and bi-directional wireless telemetry capsule .Besides this we have reviewed the process of manufacturing products using nanotechnology.

Some other important applications are also discussed along with their potential

impacts on various fields.

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FACE RECOGNITION USING Neural Network

ABSTRACT


Faces represent complex, multidimensional, meaningful visual stimuli and developing a computational model for face recognition is difficult [43]. We present a hybrid neural network solution which compares favorably with other methods. The system combines local image sampling, a self-organizing map neural network, and a convolutional neural network. The self-organizing map provides a quantization of the image samples into a topological space where inputs that are nearby in the original space are also nearby in the output space, thereby providing dimensionality reduction and invariance to minor changes in the image sample, and the convolutional neural network provides for partial invariance to translation, rotation, scale, and deformation.
The convolutional network extracts successively larger features in a hierarchical set of layers. We present results using the Karhunen-Lo`eve transform in place of the self-organizing map, and a multi-layer perceptron in place of the convolutional network. The Karhunen-Lo`eve transform performs almost as well (5.3% error versus 3.8%). The multi-layer perceptron performs very poorly (40% error versus 3.8%). The method is capable of rapid classification, requires only fast, approximate normalization and preprocessing, and consistently exhibits better classification performance than the eigenfaces approach [43] on the database considered as the number of images per person in the training database is varied from 1 to 5. With 5 images per person the proposed method and eigenfaces result in 3.8% and 10.5% error respectively. The recognizer provides a measure of confidence in its output and classification error approaches zero when rejecting as few as 10% of the examples. We use a database of 400 images of 40 individuals which contains quite a high degree of variability in expression, pose, and facial details. We analyze computational complexity and discuss how new classes could be added to the trained recognizer.



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Thermomechanical Data Storage

ABSTRACT


In the future, the current method of magnetically storing data may reach its limit of maximum achievable density. Hence we need a data storage technology which has high storage capacity and is small in size. The solution is Thermomechanical data storage. Thermomechanical Data Storage is a data storage scheme in which nanometer sized pits on a plastic disc represent digital data. This data storage concept combines ultrahigh density, terabit capacity, small form factor and high data rates. By using this concept, we will be able to store the equivalent of 25 DVDs on a surface the size of a postage stamp. IBM scientists have demonstrated a data storage density of a trillion bits per square inch – 20 times higher than the densest magnetic storage available today. IBM achieved this remarkable density — enough to store 25 million printed textbook pages on a surface the size of a postage stamp — in a research project code-named “Millipede”. Millipede uses thousands of nano-sharp tips to punch indentations representing individual bits into a thin plastic film. The result is akin to a nanotech version of the venerable data processing ‘punch card’ developed more than 110 years ago, but with two crucial differences: the ‘Millipede’ technology is re-writeable, and may be able to store more than 3 billion bits its of data in the space occupied by just one hole in a standard punch card.



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Low-k dielectrics

ABSTRACT


Low-k dielectrics are the very latest path breaking development in the field of Integrated Electronics. It is well on its way replacing the Al / SiO2 interconnects with the help of copper in CMOS fabrication of IC Chips. The CMOS technology has an in-built coupling capacitance which increases the time delay, thereby reducing associated processing speeds. This was compensated by reducing the thickness of the Al / SiO2 interconnects. There is a limit to the reduction in thickness after which an inverse effect is seen. This is where Cu / low-k dielectric interconnects come into the picture. In this case, the processing speed and hence the device performance is improved by reducing the RC delay. Low-k dielectrics are materials which have a dielectric constant less than 3. Air has the least k of 1, and so is used for production of low-k dielectric materials.



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Future Satellite Communication

ABSTRACT


This paper outlines some of the techniques being developed to provide affordable, reliable satellite communications suitable for a wide range of military aircraft, from agile platforms such as jets and helicopters to surveillance, tanker and transport aircraft. It also gives an overview of airborne SHF (Super High Frequency) and also EHF (Extremely High Frequency) satcom techniques. Although presently used UHF (Ultra High Frequency) satellite communication are relatively simple to install and comparatively inexpensive, suffer from very limited capacity and are prone to multipath and unintentional interference due to their poor antenna selectivity. Whereas, the SHF satcoms offer significantly increased bandwidth for high data rates or increased use of spread-spectrum techniques, together with localized (spot) coverage and adaptive antenna techniques – for nulling unwanted signals or interference.



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Field Emission Display Screen

ABSTRACT


With a 100-year head start over more modern screen technologies, the CRT is still a formidable technology. It’s based on universally understood principles and employs commonly available materials. The result is cheap-to-make monitors capable of excellent performance, producing stable images in true colour at high display resolutions. But in the world of miniaturization, Cathode ray tubes (CRT) are giant dinosaurs waiting for extinction. A CRT uses a single-point hot electron source that is scanned across the screen to produce an image.

The CRT’s most obvious shortcomings are well known:
• It uses too much electricity.
• Its single electron beam design is prone to misfocus, misconvergence and colour variations across the screen.
• Its clunky high-voltage electric circuits and strong magnetic fields create harmful electromagnetic radiation.
• It’s physically too large.

Attempts to replace bulky Cathode ray tubes resulted in the introduction of the field emission display screens (FED) screens. It will be the biggest threat to CRT’s dominance in the panel display arena. Instead of using a single bulky tube, FEDs use tiny ‘mini tubes’ for each pixel, and the display can be built in the same size as a CRT screen.

The FED screens are lightweight, low power consuming and compact. The FEDs can be used instead of some other technologies are gaining market share in big screen and PC monitors, such as Projection TV, Plasma Displays, Liquid Crystal, and Organic Transistor Displays.



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