An Energy Aware Framework for Dynamic Software Management in Mobile Computing Systems

ABSTRACT

Energy efficiency is a very important and challenging issue for resource-constrained mobile computers. Here, a novel dynamic software management (DSOM) framework to improve battery utilization is introduced. DSOM module is designed and implemented in user space, independent of the operating system. DSOM explores quality-of-service adaptation to reduce system energy and employs a priority based pre-emption policy for multiple applications to avoid competition for limited energy resources. Software energy macromodels for mobile applications are employed to predict energy demand at each QoS level, so that DSOM module is able to select the best possible trade-off between energy conservation and application QoS; it also honors the priority desired by the user. Experimental results on some mobile applications like video player, speech recognizer and voice-over-IP show that this approach can meet user specified task oriented goals and significantly improve battery utilization.

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LOGARITHMIC KEYING

ABSTRACT

Consider a communication network where each process needs to securely exchange messages with its neighboring processes. In this network, each sent message is encrypted using one or more symmetric keys that are shared only between two processes: – the process that sends the message and the neighboring process that receives the message. A straightforward scheme for assigning symmetric keys to the different processes in such a network is to assign each process O(d) keys, where d is the maximum number of neighbors of any process in the network.
This report presents a more efficient scheme for assigning symmetric keys to the different processes in a communication network. This scheme is referred to as logarithmic keying, which assigns O(log d)symmetric keys to each process in the network. We show that logarithmic keying can be used in rich classes of communication networks that include star networks, dense bipartite networks.

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Image Compression Using Wedgelets

ABSTRACT

Images typically contain strong geometric features, such as edges, that impose a structure on pixel values and wavelet coefficients. Modeling the joint coherent behavior of wavelet coefficients is difficult, and standard image coders fail to fully exploit this geometric regularity. i.e. Most wavelet-based image coders fail to model the joint coherent behavior of wavelet coefficients near edges. Wedgelet is introduced as a geometric tool for image compression. Wedgelets offer a convenient parameterization for the edges in an image, Wedgelets offer piecewiselinear approximations of edge contours and can be efficiently encoded.

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Java Ring

ABSTRACT

A Java Ring is a finger ring that contains a small microprocessor with built-in capabilities for the user, a sort of smart card that is wearable on a finger. Sun Microsystems’s Java Ring was introduced at their Java One Conference in 1998 and, instead of a gemstone, contained an inexpensive microprocessor in a stainless steel iButton running a Java virtual machine and preloaded with applets (little application programs). The rings were built by Dallas Semiconductor. Workstations at the conference had “ring readers” installed on them that downloaded information about the user from the conference registration system.
This information was then used to enable a number of personalized services. For example, a robotic machine made coffee according to user preferences, which it downloaded when they snapped the ring into another “ring reader.” The Java Ring is an extremely secure Java-powered electronic token with a continuously running, unalterable real-time clock and rugged packaging, suitable for many applications. The jewel of the Java Ring is the Java iButton — a one million transistor, single chip trusted microcomputer with a powerful Java Virtual Machine (JVM) housed in a rugged and secure stainless-steel case.

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Self Healing Robots

ABSTRACT


When people or animals get hurt, they can usually compensate for minor injuries and keep limping along, but for robots, even slight damage can make them stumble and fall. Now a robot scarcely larger than a human hand has demonstrated a novel ability: It can recover from damage — an innovation that could make robots more independent.

The new robot, which looks like a splay-legged, four-footed starfish, deduces the shape of its own body by performing a series of playful movements, swiveling its four limbs. By using sensors to record resulting changes in the angle of its body, it gradually generates a computerized image of itself. The robot then uses this to plan out how to walk forward.

The researchers hope similar robots will someday respond not only to damage to their own bodies but also to changes in the surrounding environment. Such responsiveness could lend autonomy to robotic explorers on other planets like Mars — a helpful feature, since such robots can’t always be in contact with human controllers on earth. Aside from practical value, the robot’s abilities suggest a similarity to human thinking as the robot tries out various actions to figure out the shape of its world.



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Multi Touch

ABSTRACT


Multi-touch technology is an advanced human-computer interaction technique that recognizes multiple touch points and also includes the hardware devices that implement it, which allow users to compute without conventional input devices . Multi-touch consists of a touch screen (screen, table, wall, etc.) or touchpad, as well as a software that recognizes multiple simultaneous touch points, as opposed to the standard touch screen which recognizes only one touch point at a time.
Multi touch using Frustrated Total Internal Reflection is a simple, inexpensive, and scalable technique for enabling high-resolution multi touch sensing on rear-projected interactive surfaces. Different applications for multi-touch interfaces both exist and are being proposed. Some uses are individualistic e.g. iPhone, iPod touch, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air. The use of multi-touch technology is expected to rapidly become common place.



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Bio Inspired Computing

ABSTRACT


Biologically inspired (often hyphenated as biologically-inspired) computing (also bio-inspired computing) is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence. It is often closely related to the field of artificial intelligence, as many of its pursuits can be linked to machine learning. It relies heavily on the fields of biology, computer science and mathematics. Briefly put, it is the use of computers to model nature, and simultaneously the study of nature to improve the usage of computers. Biologically inspired computing is a major subset of natural computation.
Some areas of study encompassed under the canon of biologically inspired computing, and their biological counterparts:
• genetic algorithms ↔ evolution
• emergent systems ↔ ants, termites, bees, wasps
• artificial immune systems ↔ immune system
The way in which bio-inspired computing differs from traditional artificial intelligence (AI) is in how it takes a more evolutionary approach to learning, as opposed to the what could be described as ‘creationist’ methods used in traditional AI. In traditional AI, intelligence is often programmed from above: the programmer is the creator, and makes something and imbues it with its intelligence. Bio-inspired computing, on the other hand, takes a more bottom-up, decentralised approach; bio-inspired techniques often involve the method of specifying a set of simple rules, a set of simple organisms which adhere to those rules, and a method of iteratively applying those rules. After several generations of rule application it is usually the case that some forms of complex behaviour arise. Complexity gets built upon complexity until the end result is something markedly complex, and quite often completely counterintuitive from what the original rules would be expected to produce.



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