Embedded Systems Security

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the hardware and software security requirements in an embedded device that are involved in the transfer of secure digital data. The paper gives an overview on the security processes like encryption/decryption, key agreement, digital signatures and digital certificates that are used to achieve data protection during data transfer. The paper also discusses the security requirements in the device to prevent possible physical attacks to expose the secure data such as secret keys from the device. The paper also briefs on the security enforced in a device by the use of proprietary security technology and also discusses the security measures taken during the production of the device.

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An Energy Aware Framework for Dynamic Software Management in Mobile Computing Systems

ABSTRACT

Energy efficiency is a very important and challenging issue for resource-constrained mobile computers. Here, a novel dynamic software management (DSOM) framework to improve battery utilization is introduced. DSOM module is designed and implemented in user space, independent of the operating system. DSOM explores quality-of-service adaptation to reduce system energy and employs a priority based pre-emption policy for multiple applications to avoid competition for limited energy resources. Software energy macromodels for mobile applications are employed to predict energy demand at each QoS level, so that DSOM module is able to select the best possible trade-off between energy conservation and application QoS; it also honors the priority desired by the user. Experimental results on some mobile applications like video player, speech recognizer and voice-over-IP show that this approach can meet user specified task oriented goals and significantly improve battery utilization.

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LOGARITHMIC KEYING

ABSTRACT

Consider a communication network where each process needs to securely exchange messages with its neighboring processes. In this network, each sent message is encrypted using one or more symmetric keys that are shared only between two processes: – the process that sends the message and the neighboring process that receives the message. A straightforward scheme for assigning symmetric keys to the different processes in such a network is to assign each process O(d) keys, where d is the maximum number of neighbors of any process in the network.
This report presents a more efficient scheme for assigning symmetric keys to the different processes in a communication network. This scheme is referred to as logarithmic keying, which assigns O(log d)symmetric keys to each process in the network. We show that logarithmic keying can be used in rich classes of communication networks that include star networks, dense bipartite networks.

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Renewable Electric Energy sources

ABSTRACT

The electricity requirements of the world are increasing at an alarming rate and the power demand has been running ahead of supply. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels and other conventional resources, presently being used for generation of electrical energy, may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of electrical energy of the world. Also the generation of electrical power by coal based steam power plants or nuclear power plants causes pollution. The recent severe energy crisis has forced the world to develop new and alternative methods of power generation, which could not be adopted so far due to various reasons. The magneto-hydro-dynamic(MHD) power generation is one of the examples of a unique method of power generation. The other non-conventional methods of power generation may be solar cells, fuel cells, thermo-electric generator, thermionic conveter, wind power generation, tidal power generation. This paper gives information about different types of Renewable Energy Sources. Some attention is also paid to reasons for increase in power demand, energy problem, present condition &TOWS analysis.

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Grid Network

ABSTRACT


Grid is as an emerging technology for enabling resource sharing and coordinated problem solving in dynamic multi-institutional virtual organizations. In the grid environment, resources may belong to different institutions, have different usage policies and pose different requirements on acceptable requests.

one of the fundamental operations needed to support location independent computing is resource discovery .It is the process of locating relevant resources based on application requirements of a user.

The description of a resource is essential for automated resource discovery and search, selection, matching, composition and interoperation, invocation and execution monitoring; different middle-ware specifies different rules for describing a resource. Hence, the information gathered from these diverse sources tends to be semantically heterogeneous and needs to be correlated.

Efficient resource discovery needs uniform unambiguous resource description. To date there is no universal resource description language common to all state of art grid middleware. Different grid middleware systems have different methods of resource description and it is not yet known how well these can interoperate. Hence, there is a need to utilize semantic matching of these resource descriptions.



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WiMAX

ABSTRACT


WiMAX, meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-point links to portable internet access[citation needed]. The technology provides up to 75 Mbit/s symmetric broadband speed without the need for cables. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). The name “WiMAX” was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as “a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL”.
The terms “fixed WiMAX”, “mobile WiMAX”, “802.16d” and “802.16e” are frequently used incorrectly Correct definitions are the following:
• 802.16-2004 is often called 802.16d, since that was the working party that developed the standard. It is also frequently referred to as “fixed WiMAX” since it has no support for mobility.
• 802.16e-2005 is an amendment to 802.16-2004 and is often referred to in shortened form as 802.16e. It introduced support for mobility, amongst other things and is therefore also known as “mobile WiMAX”.



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Embedded Linux

ABSTRACT


Although the term “Embedded Linux” is only a couple of years old, Embedded Linux has already established itself as one of the most important technologies to enter the embedded computing market. The power, reliability, flexibility, and scalability of Linux, combined with its support for a multitude of microprocessor architectures, hardware devices, graphics support, and communications protocols have established Linux as an increasingly popular software platform for a vast array of projects and products. Use of Linux spans the full spectrum of computing applications, from IBM’s tiny Linux wrist watch to hand-held devices.(including PDAs and cell phones) and consumer entertainment systems, to Internet appliances, thin clients, firewalls, equipment, . . . and even to cluster-based supercomputers.
If you could travel back in time to the Embedded Systems Conference of September 1999, you would find that the “Embedded Linux Market” simply did not exist, one short year ago. Sure, a growing number of developers and a handful of companies were starting to embed Linux. But as a market that anyone tracked, or paid attention to, Embedded Linux simply hadn’t made it onto the radar screens.One year ago, embedding Linux was a relatively rare phenomenon and was mostly the result of developer innovation — not the fruits of marketing plans and promotional strategies.

Where does Embedded Linux stand today?

“Embedded Linux” has now become a disruptive force in the market.The open availability of source, coupled with today’s unheralded ease and speed of collaboration and communication, turned out to be compelling factors that enabled developers to quickly and efficiently adapt to the challenges of rapidly changing landscape. So Linux began to spread like wildfire in the embedded market.



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